Food Chain News

Fig. 1: Teledyne RDI ADCP attached to a hydrographic package before lowering to great depths. Credit: J. Lemus (U. Hawaii). https://goo.gl/VfvYn1

Full-Depth Current Profiling Around the Global Ocean

ADCPs (LADCP) have provided well-resolved, full-depth current profiles since the early 1990s.Deep currents store, carry, and redistribute important properties for life in and out of the sea. For example, oxygen and nutrient levels are vital where the deep waters upwell to supply the ocean’s food chain. Yet until the mid-1970s, deep currents rivaled the dark side of the moon for mystery. Stimulated by findings from improved observations, there is now intense interest in how deep currents take part in the global climate system. Especially important are the changing heat and CO2 content of the

© Lovell / Adobe Stock

Pope Urges Action Against Plastic in Oceans

the Vatican for the occasion, saying that "each of us has to be responsible for others and for the future of our planet".United Nations figures show eight million tonnes of plastic -- bottles, packaging and other waste -- enter the ocean each year, killing marine life and entering the human food chain.Scientists have urged tougher restrictions on plastic waste. In December, almost 200 nations agreed to limit plastic pollution of the oceans, warning it could outweigh fish by 2030.Francis wrote a major document called "Laudato Si" (Praised Be) on protecting the environment from global

Cefas’ Wave Glider Lyra sailing away on the start of the 41 day mission after being deployed from RV Cefas Endeavour. (Photo: Cefas)

Scientists Complete 1700km Autonomous Acoustics Mission

of experts at Cefas including scientists, mechanical and electronic engineers, software developers and technicians.”“These autonomous vehicles could eventually take over elements of ship-based monitoring of the fish and zooplankton community by being able to identify these components of the food chain from the acoustic data alone and thus saving money by reducing the durations of ship-intensive surveys.”Dr. Jeroen van der Kooij, Cefas Pelagic Fisheries Scientists, added, “After seeing the preliminary data we collected, I am extremely excited about the future for autonomous vehicles

© dtatiana / Adobe Stock

Vietnam Beach Awash with Tide of Blue Waste

to wherever the sea level rises," she said.Vietnam is the fourth-largest contributor to marine plastic pollution globally, a 2015 study by the University of Georgia showed.Globally, eight million tonnes of plastic is dumped into the ocean every year, killing marine life and entering the human food chain, according to the U.N. Environment Programme.The latest example was a pilot whale that died in Thailand with some 80 pieces of plastic rubbish found in its stomach.The theme of World Environment Day on Tuesday is beating plastic pollution, with a call for citizens, companies and civil society groups

© Richard Carey / Adobe Stock

Efforts to Curb Plastic Litter in Oceans are Working

big changes," said the marine scientist at Britain's governmental Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science.   United Nations figures show 8 million tonnes of plastic - bottles, packaging and other waste - enter the ocean each year, killing marine life and entering the human food chain.   Scientists have urged tougher restrictions on plastic waste. In December, almost 200 nations agreed to limit plastic pollution of the oceans, warning it could outweigh fish by 2030.   In contrast to plastic bags, the researchers found the amount of plastic fishing debris - including

© somchairakin / Adobe Stock

Britain Bans Microbeads; Lawmakers Urge More Action on Plastic

, face washes and shower gels that end up in the oceans, will come into force in Britain on Tuesday, but lawmakers said more needed to be done to tackle plastic pollution.   The tiny plastic beads pollute waterways and oceans, where they can be eaten by marine life and end up in the human food chain. A report by lawmakers in 2016 said the industry’s commitment to phasing them out was inconsistent and recommended a ban.   “Microbeads in cosmetics are an avoidable part of the problem, which is why we called for a ban,” member of parliament Mary Creagh, chair of the Environmen

BTOWU vessel Fantastiko (Photo: ABB)

ABB Marine Software Supports Ocean Research

;Today, it is estimated that 23,000 kilos of plastics are dumped into the world’s oceans every single minute,” said Thomas van Thiel, By the Ocean we Unite. “These materials are fragmenting into ever smaller particles, damaging the marine environment and marine life, and entering the food chain. Plastics also act as sponges to other toxic chemicals already in the seas, concentrating areas of pollution. Removing plastics from the oceans is not currently feasible, but we must identify sources and effects because prevention is not only the better option, but cheaper than cleaning the oceans

© whitcomberd / Adobe Stock

Dutchman Wants to Deploy Barriers to Gather, Recycle Pacific Plastic

phone can be ocean plastic in the future," Slat told Reuters. Environmental groups including Greenpeace have said removing large quantities of plastic could damage marine life. "To filter the plastic out of the water could affect very small marine life which is very important for the food chain," said Elvira Jimenez, a coordinator for Greenpeace's ocean campaign. Slat said his barriers would not act like a net and would spare marine life. Plastic pollution already threatened hundreds of species with extinction, a problem that is becoming more acute over time as larger chunks of

Photo of what seaweed community looks like after introduction of invasive seaweed (Dasysiphonia japonica) (Photo: Kristen Mello/UNH)

Sea Habitats Altered by More Invasive Seaweed-Study

New Hampshire looked at seaweed populations over the last 30 years in the Southwestern Gulf of Maine and found the once predominant and towering kelp seaweed beds are declining and more invasive, shrub-like species have taken their place, altering the look of the ocean floor and the base of the marine food chain.   In the study, recently published in the Journal of Ecology, researchers compared photos of sections of the sea floor collected over 30 years at several subtidal sites in the Southwestern Gulf of Maine. They also collected individual seaweed species to determine their complexity and the

Photo: Matrix New World Engineering

Video: Retired Ship Sunk to Form Artificial Reef

Department manages one of the world’s largest active artificial reef programs with nearly 70 separate underwater locations.   Artificial reefs are essential in the Gulf of Mexico where there are few natural habitats for corals, barnacles and sponges – the basis of the aquatic food chain.   “This is a great opportunity to take a ship, clean it up, have it reefed in an upright position and create a diving attraction in addition to a marine habitat,” said J. Dale Shively, director of the artificial reef project.   “To create an artificial reef, the

Photo: Alfred-Wegener-Institut/Jaroslav Obu

Retreating Arctic Coasts Cause Drastic Changes

a lot of nutrients and pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus or mercury. These substances enter the sea, where they are further transported, degraded or accumulated and permanently alter the living conditions in the shallow water area. "We can until now only guess the implications for the food chain. To date, almost no research has been carried out on the link between the biogeochemistry of the coastal zone and increasing erosion and what consequences this has on ecosystems, on traditional fishing grounds, and thus also on the people of the Arctic," says Michael Fritz. For this reason

Spotting the Zooplankton Observatory near Heligoland from the ship Neuwerk. (Photo Alfred Wegener Institute)

Researchers Develop Underwater Observatory

the smallest marine life underwater - around the clock and even under conditions where no research ship can leave the port. Microscopically small creatures, fish larvae, jellyfish as well as youth stages of many snails and echinoderms - all this is counted as zooplankton. It is the basis of the food chain in the sea, its distribution and diversity is thus also of great importance for many fish stocks and sea mammals.   The zooplankton observatory is able to automatically detect the distribution patterns of the micro-organisms and particles with a high spatial and temporal resolution, without

Part of the objects in the Patch are underwater, so the Optech CZMIL’s depth-penetration capability was crucial for surveying. (Image courtesy The Ocean Cleanup)

Teledyne Optech Aids Study of Great Pacific Garbage Patch

eight million tons of plastic enters the oceans. Part of the trash accumulates in 5 ocean garbage patches, the largest located between Hawaii and California. Plastic in these garbage patches over time breaks down into tiny plastic particles that can be eaten by fish and birds, thereby entering the food chain. The Ocean Cleanup’s Aerial Expedition uses a combination of experienced human observers and advanced sensors to count the debris in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, with a focus on the presence of so-called ghost nets. The sensors will also be used to convert this count to a weight estimate

Photo: Ocean Conservancy

Young American Sailors Call for Action on Marine Pollution

seems to be growing exponentially. Just last week I was racing in Pala Bay in Mallorca and I have never seen so much plastic in the Mediterranean before.   "Thankfully we don't see this in the Great Barrier Reef region yet. The concern of course is all the micro-plastics getting into the food chain."     (Content provided by Volvo Ocean Race via Reuters

Control site Ambient. Photo source :Alfred Wegener Institute PR

Tropical Coral reefs lose their Zooplankton through Ocean Acidification

Richter. The research was conducted as part of the German cooperative project BIOACID. Under the umbrella of BIOACID (Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification), ten institutes have been examining how biological marine communities respond to ocean acidification and what consequences this has for the food chain, the material and energy turnover in the sea and, finally, also for the economy and society. The project began in 2009 and entered the third, final funding phase in October 2015. BIOACID is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The program is coordinated by the GEOMAR

EPA Sued Over Clean Water Rules to Curb Ocean Acidification

. "We need to act now to protect oysters, corals and other marine animals."   The lawsuit cited instances of ocean acidification linked to an oyster die-off in shellfish hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest, and to severe erosion in the shells of tiny plankton at the base of the marine food chain in waters off California.   The EPA in 2010 stated its intention to issue acidification guidance to the states "pursuant to its duties under the Clean Water Act," but has yet to do so, the lawsuit said. The agency has likewise failed to act on a petition filed by the Center for

Algae. Pic: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Ice algae: The Engine of Life in the Central Arctic Ocean

marine animals, including fish, seals and ultimately also polar bears, than hitherto suspected," says Doreen Kohlbach.   The AWI researcher was able to establish the close relationship between zooplankton and ice algae using fatty acids as biomarkers, which are passed on unchanged in the food chain.    The typical fatty acids in ice algae are thus indicators of whether an animal has ingested carbon from ice algae via food. In order to precisely determine the proportion of ice algae carbon in the diet, Doreen Kohlbach also performed an isotope analysis of these biomarkers. 

Marine Technology Magazine Cover Mar 2019 - Oceanographic Instrumentation: Measurement, Process & Analysis

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